What is new in chemotherapy for cancer? Read our chemotherapy blog and learn more about the latest advancements in cytotoxic therapy for several cancers.
On 22 February 2019, the FDA approved the fixed combination tablets of the nucleoside metabolic inhibitor trifluridine plus the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil (Lonsurf®, Taiho Pharmaceutical) for the treatment of adult metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma patients pretreated with two or more prior lines of chemotherapy including a fluoropyrimidine, a platinum, and either a taxane or irinotecan plus (when appropriate) HER2/neu-targeted therapy.
On 6 December 2018, the FDA approved atezolizumab (Tecentriq®, Roche/Genentech) plus bevacizumab and chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin for the frontline treatment of metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSq NSCLC) patients not harbouring any EGFR or ALK genomic tumour aberrations.
On the first day of the 2018 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, an additional year of follow-up data from the practice-changing MURANO study were presented to the audience by Professor John F. Seymour. In the trial’s setting of relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the non-chemo-containing regimen venetoclax (Venclexta®, AbbVie/Roche) plus rituximab was associated with maintained superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) over standard-of-care chemoimmunotherapy with bendamustine plus rituximab. At the same time, a durable post-treatment disease control is also attainable with the fixed-duration chemo-free regimen.
On 21 November 2018, the FDA granted accelerated approval to venetoclax (Venclexta®, AbbVie/Genentech) in combination with either azacitidine, or decitabine, or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), for the treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients ≥75 years old or in patients with comorbidities precluding intensive induction chemotherapy.
On 21 November 2018, the FDA approved glasdegib (Daurismo®, Pfizer) in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), for the treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in patients of 75 years or older and in patients with comorbidities contraindicating intensive induction chemotherapy.
On 16 November, 2018, the FDA approved brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®, Seattle Genetics) in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of previously untreated systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL) and other CD30-expressing peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), including angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and PTCL not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS).
Adding ipilimumab (IPI [Yervoy®, Bristol-Myers Squibb]) to nivolumab (NIVO [Opdivo®, Bristol-Myers Squibb]) induction followed by maintenance with single-agent NIVO had a superior objective tumour response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) when compared to NIVO alone in patients with persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
An interim analysis of the Phase III IMpower132 study showed that atezolizumab (Tecentriq®, Roche/Genentech) plus platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin) with pemetrexed improves the median progression-free survival (PFS) in treatment-naïve patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The median PFS for atezolizumab plus pemetrexed and a platinum salt was 7.6 months vs 5.2 months with chemotherapy alone (HR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.72; p<0.0001).
Breast-conserving surgery is uncommon in China, and despite routinely performing SLNB the uptake of the ACOSOG Z0011 study recommendation to treat selected sentinel node-positive patients with whole breast irradiation and adjuvant systemic therapy instead of ALND remains low at only 17% of Chinese centres. These were the key findings of a national survey among 520 Chinese hospitals.
Camrelizumab (SHR-1210, Hengrui Medicine), a novel programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, plus gemcitabine and cisplatin showed a manageable toxicity profile with promising, preliminary anti-tumour activity in treatment-naïve Chinese nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Larger, randomised controlled trials may provide further insight into the role of anti-PD1 for NPC, wrote the authors in the Lancet Oncology.
Single-agent PARP-inhibition with talazoparib is associated with an improved progression-free survival (PFS) and better patient-reported outcomes (PRO) when compared to chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC) and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation, as reported by the investigators of the Phase III EMBRACA study (NCT01945775) in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a key feature of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2018 annual meeting. This year, encouraging results with single-agent immunotherapy (I-O) and combinations of I-O with chemotherapy (CTx), including the CheckMate 227 with nivolumab (NIVO), IMpower131 and IMpower150 studies with atezolizumab (ATEZO), and KEYNOTE-042 and KEYNOTE-407 studies with pembrolizumab (PEMBRO). Furthermore, important Asian data on treatments for epidermal growth-factor recptor (EGFR) mutation-positive (mu+) NSCLC (ARCHER 1050, NEJ009, NEJ026, and JO25567).
Breast cancer: a front-runner when it comes to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. With the advent of newer targeted- and immunotherapies, oncologists have an increment of options to offer their patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology’s (ASCO) 2018 Breast Cancer track offered an extensive look at the latest advancements and updates from on-going trials covering the various subtypes of breast cancer.
This year’s American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting includes two Phase III studies in the second-line treatment of the disease. Moreover, data with several immune-checkpoint inhibitors were presented, including the KEYNOTE-224 with pembrolizumab. Welcome to the summary of the ASCO 2018 HCC track.
First-line atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, carboplatin and paclitaxel improves PFS in patients with non-squamous NSCLC. Two presentations on the IMPower150 study by Martin Reck (ELCC 2018) and Mark Socinski (AACR 2018) discussed the frontline addition of atezolizumab to bevacizumab and chemotherapy in different lung cancer subgroups (NCT02366143).
AACR 2018: Frontline pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in NSCLC reduces the risk of death by more than 50%. The Phase III KEYNOTE-189 trial combined pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) plus standard of care platinum-based chemotherapy in non-squamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR or ALK genetic aberrations (NCT0278680)
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On September 22, 2017, the FDA granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA, Merck) for use in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma positive for PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved companion diagnostic (CDx) and progressing after ≥2 prior systemic therapies, including a fluoropyrimidine– and platinum-containing regimen, and, when appropriate, HER2–targeted therapy.