Lung cancer is one of the leading cancers in Hong Kong, accounting for 26.4% of cancer mortality in 2018. Approximately 80% of the lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Women account for a disproportionate percentage of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 59% of 18 million new adult HIV infections in 2017.
Kidney transplants are the best treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with better survival outcomes than haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However, in Hong Kong as well as much of the rest of the world, there is an increasing gap between the number of patients requiring a transplant and the number of organs available.
Seasonal influenza is common between January to March, and July to August in Hong Kong. Baloxavir marboxil is the first influenza antiviral with a novel mechanism of action to be approved in almost two decades, and was registered for use in Hong Kong in February 2019.
RAS is the most frequently mutated gene family in cancers, with KRAS mutations being involved as a driver in three of the most lethal cancers – lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Incidence of KRAS mutations vary between ethnicity with Caucasians having a higher incidence than African-Americans or Asians. In non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common KRAS mutation is G12C. In Asia, G12C mutations in particular account for 14.5% of KRAS mutations in the Chinese population. KRAS G12C was identified in 4.3% of lung cancer samples and 2.5% of colorectal cancer samples.